Why vaccinate for BVD?

BVD is endemic in New Zealand, affecting both dairy and beef herds.

BVD has been estimated to cost the New Zealand cattle industry around $150 million a year.

LIC Data shows the prevalance of BVD in dairy herds is high1

  • 63% of dairy herds had a milk antibody level of >0.75
  • 13% of herds contained milking PI animals.

The situation in beef herds in New Zealand is similar.

  • In a comparative study2 of 94 low and high fertility beef herds, 65% were actively infected with BVD
  • A more recent study3 of 43 beef herds showed 58% had evidence of recent BVD infection.

Economic modelling shows it pays to control BVD.

Andrew Weir’s economic model showed the various means of BVD control and how these reduced the impact of BVD compared to no control.

Weir A. PhD work submitted June 2016.

Average discounted cost per year for an average 400 cow farm
* Only vaccinating milking heifers ** Calf vaccination then subsequent annual boosters until whole herd vaccination is achieved

Economic modelling showed it is always more cost effective to do something than to do nothing4.

Vaccination is a cost effective part of most control strategies.

Why Bovilis BVD?

The only BVD vaccine with a 12 month fetal protection claim*

Bovilis BVD is the only BVD vaccine with a 12 month fetal protection claim*

*Bovilis BVD provides 6 months fetal protection following the initial vaccination series (sensitiser and booster), and 12 months fetal protection following a third dose.

The key to BVD control is protecting the fetus to prevent PI calves being formed.

Flexible primary dosing interval

Bovilis BVD has a flexible primary dosing interval of 4 weeks to 6 months between the initial sensitiser and booster shots.

This extended vaccination interval allows farmers the convenience of aligning their vaccination schedule with other planned management practices.

Made from the strain which is the predominant subtype in NZ

Bovilis BVD is made with strain C86, a Type 1a BVD virus which is the predominant subtype in NZ5.

  • Australian isolates are predominantly subtype 1c6
  • The C86 strain and adjuvant in Bovilis BVD are highly immunogenic7,8
  • Bovilis BVD provides protection against diverse Type 1&2 BVD viruses, as well as Border Disease viruses7,8

Improves fertility in herds with active BVD infection

Vaccination with Bovilis BVD improves reproductive performance in herds with active BVD infection9

No drop in milk production

Vaccinating with Bovilis BVD doesn’t cause a drop in milk production.

New Zealand dairy herds are vaccinated when milk production is near its peak, so its important that a vaccine has no effect on milk production.

A field study has demonstrated no observable difference between vaccinated and control animals following vaccination, and no effect on average milk yields.10

12 months duration of immunity for transient infection

Bovilis BVD provides 12 months duration of immunity for transient infection.11

While transiently infected animals are not the main source of BVD spread within a herd it is the most frequent infection type and the cost of lost production from a transiently infected animal is significant.

Safe for use in pregnant cattle

Bovilis BVD is formulated for safety in pregnant cows.

In breeding cattle it is good practice to administer the booster vaccination no less than, but close to 4 weeks before the planned start of mating to ensure fetal protection in early gestation. Bovilis BVD is safe for use in pregnant cows which provides confidence in situations when there is an extended mating period. If any cattle are pregnant at the time of vaccination there will be no adverse effects for the cow or her unborn calf.

When, how?

  • 2mL dose by IM (intramuscular) or SC (subcutaneous) injection
  • 14 day broach claim (unused vaccine must be discarded within 2 weeks of opening)
  • Flexible primary dosing interval of 4 weeks to 6 months between the initial sensitiser and booster shots
  • Administer booster vaccination no less than but close to 4 weeks before the start of mating to ensure fetal protection in early gestation
  • Safe for use in pregnant cattle and has no adverse effect on milk production
  • Nil withhold
  • Available in 20mL (10 dose), 50mL (25 dose) & 100mL (50 dose) pack sizes with draw-off tube

What you need to know

BVD (Bovine Viral Diarrhoea) is a viral disease of cattle which is wide-spread in New Zealand.

BVD can cause pregnancy loss, diarrhoea, milk drop, and reduced growth rates. It also suppresses the immune system, making animals more susceptible to other diseases, such as pneumonia and salmonella.

BVD is spread by “persistently-infected” or “PI” cattle. The key to BVD control is therefore to find and eliminate PIs from within your herd, then protect your herd from contact with outside PIs. This can be accomplished by: monitoring the herd, testing individual animals, improving biosecurity, and strategically vaccinating ‘at-risk’ cattle.

BVD is often a ‘hidden disease’ preventing full production in a number of ways, often without attracting the attention of the farmer or veterinarian.

BVD symptoms include:

  • A rough coat and a loss of body condition
  • Depression
  • Reduced appetite
  • Nil or poor weight gain
  • Scouring in a large number of the mob
  • Coughing
  • Discharge from the eyes and nose
  • Ulcers in the mouth and between the toes (sometimes)
  • Sudden onset of severe disease and the premature death of Persistently Infected (PI) animals.

In dairy cattle a bulk milk test with an S/P ratio >0.75 indicates a high probability of BVD in a herd.

BVD has been estimated to cost the New Zealand cattle industry around $150 million a year.

Two New Zealand studies have looked at the economic effects of BVD on dairy and beef herds.

There are a number of ways to prevent and/or control BVD. Most cattle farms in New Zealand don’t operate as a closed system, therefore active management of BVD is critical on nearly every farm.

Herds can reduce their risk through the following practices:

  • monitoring for BVD
  • implementing practical biosecurity strategies
  • vaccinating stock at-risk of PI exposure with Bovilis BVD

Resources

Bovilis BVD Brochure

What is BVD? Top Farmers Know-How series

Test for and control BVD. Top Farmers Know-How series

Biosecurity for BVD. Top Farmers Know-How series

References

* Following a third dose (annual vaccination) Bovilis BVD provides 12 months fetal protection.
1. Voges, H. and Hill, F. BVD Steering Committee Roadshow 2014
2. Heuer, C. et al. (2008). Effect of reproductive pathogens on pregnancy rates in beef herds. Proc. 38th Sem. Soc. Sheep and Beef Cattle Vets. NZVA; 141-147
3. Cuttance, W & Cuttance. (2014) E. Analysis of individual farm investigations into bovine viral diarrhoea in beef herds in the North Island of New Zealand. NZ Vet J. Nov; 62(6): 338-42
4. Weir A. PhD work submitted June 2016 
5. Horner GW et al. (2000) Typing of New Zealand strains of pestivirus. Surveillance 27(3):16
6. Mahony et al. (2005) Genetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses from Australia. Veterinary Microbiology 106 1-6
7. Patel, J.R. et al. (2005) Variation in immunogenicity of ruminant pestiviruses as determined by the neutralisation assay, The Veterinary Journal, Vol 169, 468-472.
8. Makoschey, B et al. (2001) An inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine affords clinical protection against BVD type 2.
9. Mawhinney, I., (2005) Vaccination with Bovilis BVD-MD improves fertility in dairy herds under field conditions. Tierärztliche Umschau 60(9):501-502
10. MSD Data on file
11. Munoz Bielsa, J. et al. Evaluation of the level of protection afforded by a BVD inactivated vaccine (C-86 strain), 12 months after vaccination. Journees Nationales des GTV, Nantes, 2005, 903

Health risks & diseases

BVD (Bovine Viral Diarrhoea) is a viral disease of cattle which is wide-spread in New Zealand. Affecting both dairy and beef herds, it is estimated that about half of herds are “actively-infected” with BVD at any given time1 and the cost of BVD to the New Zealand cattle industry is around $150 million a year.2

BVD causes pregnancy loss, diarrhoea, milk drop, and reduced growth rates. It also suppresses the immune system, making animals more susceptible to other diseases, such as pneumonia and salmonella.

Research in New Zealand and overseas shows that it pays to control BVD; it is always more cost-effective to do something than to do nothing3. Moreover, a well-executed BVD control plan will help you achieve other farm goals, like improving animal welfare, reducing antibiotic usage, and improving reproductive performance.

BVD is spread by “persistently-infected” or “PI” cattle.  The key to BVD control is therefore to find and eliminate PIs from within your herd, then protect your herd from contact with outside PIs.   This can be accomplished by: monitoring the herd, testing individual animals, improving biosecurity, and strategically vaccinating ‘at-risk’ cattle. 

For more information about BVD, including how to test for and control BVD click here

1 Han, JH et al. (2018). Using Bayesian network modelling to untangle farm management risk factors for bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 161:75-82.
2 The BVD Management Toolkit. BVD Steering Committee
3 Weir, A. (2016). Epidemiology of BVD in New Zealand dairy herds. Massey University PhD thesis dissertation

For information about prevention with Bovilis® BVD vaccine click here

Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is a complex disorder of cattle causing respiratory disease and even death. It is caused by a combination of infectious agents and stress factors (weaning, transport, mixing, weather extremes, dust, handling and change of diet) acting on susceptible cattle in paddock and more intensive systems.

Signs of BRD include:

  • Fever
  • Depression
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dullness
  • Coughing
  • Rapid, shallow breathing
  • Watery, then purulent nasal and/or eye discharge
  • Excess salivation

Due to the intensification of farming, BRD may have a larger impact on New Zealand in the future than what we have seen historically. Most cattle are susceptible to BRD at some point, and it can impact performance.

For information about prevention with Bovilis® MH+IBR vaccine click here

Neonatal diarrhoea is arguably one of the most common diseases of newborn calves worldwide. The consequences on animal welfare and those managing the calves can be devastating. The cost of mortality, poor growth and performance as well as treatment costs, all need to be considered. The infectious agents that cause neonatal calf diarrhoea are prevalent in New Zealand. In a recent survey 96% of farms in New Zealand had pathogens that can cause calf scours detected1.

For more information about calf scours and calf health in general click here

For information about prevention with Rotavec® Corona vaccine click here